Ground Cover Supplement : GC Supplement - Statistics for Australian Grains
13 Issue 126 | Jan -- Feb 2017 | GRDC GROUNDCOVERTM SUPPLEMENT: SAGI GROUNDCOVER FROST MANAGEMENT SOURCE: www.nvtonline.com.au/frost FIGURE 1 FV-Plus performance value of frost-induced sterility for five wheat varieties tested at Merredin, Wickepin and Brookton in WA. CorackA Each FV for each variety is presented along with prediction standard error bars. The number of frost events is indicated in brackets for each site/year. Lower FVs are better. The dashed line represents an average variety for that trial. MaceA LongReach ScoutA WyalkatchemA YitpiA Frost value (lower is better) Experiment (number of frost tagging events) 0.15 0.10 0.05 0.00 --0.05 --0.10 --0.15 Merredin 2012 (5) Wickepin 2013 (10) Brookton 2015 (13) Wickepin 2014 (13) is to identify for Australia wheat lines with barley levels of reproductive frost tolerance. BIG DATA The research work has been managed by UA and involves multi-environment trials (MET) in frost-prone areas around Australia: Loxton (SA), Merredin, Wickepin and Brookton (WA) and Narrabri (NSW) managed by UA, DAFWA and Kalyx, respectively. Typically, the trials have up to eight sowing dates from April to June on approximate equidistant thermal times to increase the coincidence of a frost event with an appropriate developmental stage for each variety in the trial. This ensures that varieties flower across a wide period from late July to early October when frost events are most probable. Each site has a weather station measuring standard weather parameters and an array of temperature probes throughout the trial to measure temperature in the crop canopy. Temperature readings at canopy height can be several degrees cooler than those recorded by Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) stations, a fact demonstrated at the Loxton site where the BOM weather station is located next to the trial. Data collection is very labour intensive and technicians and casual staff are regularly trained to maintain a consistent protocol at each site. Following a frost, staff members tag the heads that are at flowering stage, and about four weeks later they count the number of sterile florets. A large amount of data is generated from the field frost phenotyping, with more than 70,000 heads assessed per year (Table 1). SAGI biometricians have developed a novel approach to ensure the field trials are designed efficiently and analysis takes account of the unique features of the experimental design, the sampling protocol and the complexity of the frost expression in a variable and unpredictable (frost) environment. They were also instrumental in developing the interactive online tool. DECISION TOOL The analysis forms the basis of the Frost Value Plus (FV-Plus) decision-support tool (www.nvtonline.com.au/frost), which allows users to select a region of interest and compare the frost susceptibility of up to six varieties. The online tool uses the same format as the PV-Plus yield comparison tool, also developed by SAGI, and although the tools look similar the FV-Plus tool does not compare yield. The lower the frost value of the cultivar, the less susceptible it is to frost. For example, a grower in the WA Upper Great Southern might use FV-Plus to consider how to incorporate CorackA and LongReach ScoutA into their cropping program to replace WyalkatchemA and YitpiA (Figure 1). For frost risk management, this grower can treat CorackA in the same way as WyalkatchemA or MaceA and given its similar sowing and flowering time to MaceA, CorackA can essentially be treated the same in terms of sowing time and position. On the other hand, LongReach ScoutA, although similar in frost performance to YitpiA, flowers about five to seven days earlier so may need to be sown slightly later than YitpiA to manage frost risk comparably to YitpiA. Growers need to continue to select varieties primarily based on the best yield, market value (quality type), maturity, and agronomic and disease performance. Crop selection is just one component of a frost-management plan and fine- tuning variety selection using frost susceptibility ranking is a subset of that component. Once a variety has been selected, the frost performance values can be used to fine-tune risk management based on how known varieties with similar performance are managed. Frost is a complex production constraint resulting in significant financial losses. It requires a package of pre-season, in-crop and post-frost risk-management strategies. Further research is underway to quantify the relationship between reproductive frost damage and grain yield loss of varieties. o GRDC Research Codes UA00136, UA00162, DAW00234, UW00005 More information: Dr Tim March, University of Adelaide, 0467 709 236, firstname.lastname@example.org; Dr Ben Biddulph, DAFWA, 0428 920 654, ben. email@example.com; Professor Brian Cullis, UOW, 02 4221 5641, firstname.lastname@example.org Useful resources: GRDC Frost Tips and Tactics, www.grdc.com. au/ManagingFrostRisk GRDC NFI video playlist, bit.ly/GRDCNFI GRDC National Variety Trials frost tool www.nvtonline.com.au/frost FAST FACT n The Frost Value Plus (FV-Plus) tool (www.nvtonline.com.au/frost) allows users to select a region of interest and compare the frost susceptibility of up to six varieties.
GC Supplement - Pulse breeding advances
GC Supplement - Wheat pre-breeding