Ground Cover Supplement : GC Supplement - Foliar fungal diseases
19 FOLIAR FUNGAL DISEASES GROUND COVER Resistance to stripe rust in barley has become an important objective for breeding programs in the Americas. WORLDWIDE FIGHT AGAINST RUST THE GLOBAL RUST INITIATIVE OFFERS PROTECTION TO AUSTRALIAN GRAIN GROWERS FROM EXTERNAL RUST THREATS BY ROBERT PARK A new pathotype of the stem rust pathogen of wheat was detected in eastern Africa in 1999. This pathotype has become commonly known as Ug99, and has since been detected in Uganda, Kenya, Ethiopia and Yemen. This pathotype has caused considerable concern because of its ability to overcome many rust-resistance genes in wheat, including Sr31, one of the most widely deployed stem rust resistance genes that remained effective until the detection of Ug99. Fortunately for Australia, wheat breeders have not relied heavily on this resistance gene because it is associated with a quality problem known as 'sticky dough'. Ug99 has had a big impact on a wide range of global wheat germplasm and, accordingly, an expert panel was assembled and met in Kenya in 2005. In essence, this meeting acknowledged the threat of Ug99 to stable wheat production in eastern Africa, and the threat posed to many other parts of the world based on past experience, which suggests the progressive migration of rust isolates from eastern Africa to south Asia. An outcome of the meeting was the proposed formation of a Global Rust Initiative (GRI) to deal with the immediate problems in eastern Africa and to prepare other regions for the possible introduction of Ug99. The GRI was launched in October 2005 at a summit convened by the International Centre for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) and CIMMYT (International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center). The GRI now comprises a partnership between CIMMYT, BIOSECURITY most cases, unknown. Two stem-rust pathotypes detected in 1969 are believed to have originated in central Africa, and it is thought that they reached Australia by aerial transport of spores across the Indian Ocean. Studies of the stripe-rust pathogen indicated that its spores can remain viable on clothing for up to seven days, and the evidence suggests that it was inadvertently introduced into Australia from southern Europe (1979) and North America (2002) by contamination of travellers' clothing. This latter finding indicates that the responsibility for quarantine lies with all of us. The importance of due care by all in the agricultural industry who visit fields and trials overseas cannot be over-emphasised. GRDC Research Code US315 More information: Professor Robert Park, Australian Cereal Rust Control Program, Plant Breeding Institute, University of Sydney, 02 9351 8806, email@example.com GRDC Research Code US315 More information: Associate Professor Colin Wellings, principal research scientist, NSW DPI, Plant Breeding Institute, 02 9351 8826, firstname.lastname@example.org ICARDA and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). While the primary focus is Ug99, the GRI is actually broader in focus in tackling all rust threats. In addition to these organisations, others including the Australian Cereal Rust Control Program (ACRCP) are contributing to the objectives of the GRI which include: nimpact projection, knowledge sharing and decision-support systems for policy makers; npathogen surveillance, monitoring and early warning; nbreeding varieties to resist stem rust race Ug99; and ncapacity building for rapid response to the threat of stem rust race Ug99. The GRI provides an excellent opportunity for the international rust community to work together on all aspects of rust control, with benefits flowing to all partners. In the years since, a great deal of global wheat germplasm -- including Australian material -- has been tested in rust nurseries conducted by the Kenyan Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) at Njoro, and the Ethiopian Institute for Agricultural Research (EIAR) at Kulumsa and Debre Zeit. This work has allowed breeders in regions where Ug99 does not exist to select for resistance as a pre- emptive measure in case it spreads further, and has allowed researchers to identify new sources of stem rust resistance that are thought could be durable. GRDC Research Code US315 More information: Professor Robert Park, Australian Cereal Rust Control Program, Plant Breeding Institute, University of Sydney, 02 9351 8806, email@example.com Colin Wellings at the annual disease screening nurseries at Toluca, Mexico, supported through the GRDC.
GC Supplement - Integrated pest management
GC Supplement - Partners in grain